Thursday, September 29, 2016

ETHNICITY IN AMERICA

Originally published: Sunday, August 28, 2016



SPECIAL
EDITORIAL
ISSUE:
A Point of View
by Editor/Publisher
Jack A. Atkinson
(From time to time, ARTSnFOOD publishes editorialized content. This point-of-view is specifically one person's opinion and we recognize many differing opinions exist. This post may be up for a short period before it is moved into our archives. Then ARTSnFOOD will return to its focus on "The Joy of Art.")

"DEEP-THOUGHTS about Ethnicity"

I have decided that ethnicity (race) is less about skin color and other physical features and mostly about our geographic heritage and the external cultural influences which contribute to make us who we have turned out to be.

For my whole life there seems to have been a constant discussion about ethnicity in America. My original position on ethnicity, as an adult, was to be color blind. I though it was an intelligent point-of-view and the correct way to associate with my ethnically diverse friends. Very quickly I found out, everybody strongly wanted me to recognize their ethnicity as a part of their identity and to never be color blind! They wanted me to recognize their ethnicity is part of who they are, and I needed to embrace and see them completely.

I have now pivoted my point-of-view to think physical appearance (skin tone and other distinctive "ethnic" features) has ittle to do with what we consider our ethnicity and who we are as individuals. Our physical appearance is a result of our family heritage - the many generations of relatives forming a genetic history. Ethnicity check boxes on surveys are created via this family tree.

Scientifically and genetically, there are only minuscule differences between all human ethnicities. Our physical, ethnic traits are controlled by only 3 to 6 genes out of the 25,000 genes making-up the human genome. Somehow each of us looks unique within those 3 to 6 genes, but we must remember all humans are genetically 99.99999% similar. 

What society currently calls ethnicity are the genetics passed down to us from a geographic linage many generations ago, simply because our relatives lived in one specific location on this planet for centuries. This created our unique skin color and physical characteristics. Real ethnicity seems to come from recent influences: cultural mores, traditions and religions passed down to us by last dozen generations our families and our specific homogenous social group. (i.e.: Latino vs Mayan.) The foods our immediate family, relatives and group preferred; the common language and dialect we were all taught at birth, and all traits and preferences our specific homogenous social group embraced. Think of how African-Americans, Latino-Americans, Asian-Americans, etc., as homogenous groups, often have lifestyles, interests and social bonds unique to their communities.

In my opinion these external influences define contemporary ethnicity. In other words ethnicity seems to be more about the situational influences on us as we grew up, more than our skin color, hair texture and other physical traits, all based on an ancient genetic history. A 10th generation Ethnic-American is a very different person from his or her distant cousin recently born and raised in the same ancestoral village of origin. The two may share the same 3 to 6 genes which define physical trates of "ethnicity", but they have very little else in common.

As adults we learn to accept change: in the world around us, in our lives, in how we think, in advances in technology, etc.

So I ask:
• Can we stop thinking about ethnicity simply as physical traits and start focusing on the interesting and diverse cultures represented by the word "race"?
• Can we stop stepping on each others cultural toes?
• Do we understand each other’s problems from the other person's cultural perspective?
• Can we find respectful solutions to all problems where ethnicity is involved?
Lets keep in mind we are all human: 99.999% alike (genetically speaking) and we share these cities and towns we call home!

- Jack A. Atkinson
editor & publisher of ARTSnFOOD magazine

Until later,
Jack

ARTSnFOOD is an online magazine dedicated to providing artists and collectors around the world with highlights of current art exhibitions, and to encourage all readers to invest in and participate in "The Joy of Art"® and culture. All rights reserved. All Concepts, Original Art, Text & Photographs in this posting (which are not credited) are © Copyright 2016 Jack A. Atkinson under all International intellectual property and copyright laws. All gallery, event, museum, fair or festival photographs were taken with permission. Images © individual artists, 

Sunday, September 11, 2016

Antiquities: Art & Design During the Time of Alexander the Great (Issue #2) + FOOD, is good health, diet, exercise or both?

Stater of Mithridates VI Eupator (120-63 BC)



ART

Antiquities: 
Art & Design 
During the Time 
of Alexander 
the Great
at the Met (continued - Issue #2)


(From the Met Museum of Art NYC Exhibition: 
Pergamon and the Hellenistic Kingdoms 

of the Ancient World)

Terracotta statuette of the Diadoumenos (youth tying a fillet around his head)

1st century b.c., Greek
Connoisseurship and the origins of the discipline of art history began in the Hellenistic period. Greek statues of the fifth century B.C., notably works by Polykleitos, Phidias, and others, were sought out and frequently replicated. The pose of the famous statue of the Diadoumenos by Polykleitos is recognizable in this statuette, but the slender, graceful forms conform to Late Hellenistic taste.

Although terracotta was one of the most abundantly available and inexpensive materials of sculptural production in antiquity, it was used to make miniature copies less widely than might be expected. Apparently, only a few centers of production concentrated on this sculptural genre, and those that did limited their choices of subject considerably. The Greek city of Smyrna on the west coast of Asia Minor was among the most important copying centers, and a number of large- and small-scale replicas or variations of well-known statuary types, from both the Classical and Hellenistic periods, were made there.



Bronze statuette of a veiled and masked dancer

Hellenistic, 3rd - 2nd century b.c.
The complex motion of this dancer is conveyed exclusively through the interaction of the body with several layers of dress. Over an undergarment that falls in deep folds and trails heavily, the figure wears a lightweight mantle, drawn tautly over her head and body by the pressure applied to it by her right arm, left hand, and right leg. Its substance is conveyed by the alternation of the tubular folds pushing through from below and the freely curling softness of the fringe. The woman's face is covered by the sheerest of veils, discernible at its edge below her hairline and at the cutouts for the eyes. Her extended right foot shows a laced slipper. This dancer has been convincingly identified as one of the professional entertainers, a combination of mime and dancer, for which the cosmopolitan city of Alexandria was famous in antiquity.


Bronze statue of Eros sleeping

Hellenistic period, 3rd - 2nd century b.c.

The Hellenistic period introduced the accurate characterization of age. Young children enjoyed great favor, whether in mythological form, as baby Herakles or Eros, or in genre scenes, playing with each other or with pets. This Eros, god of love, has been brought down to earth and disarmed, a conception considerably different from that of the powerful, often cruel, and capricious being so often addressed in Archaic poetry. One of the few bronze statues to have survived from antiquity, this figure of a plump baby in relaxed pose conveys a sense of the immediacy and naturalistic detail that the medium of bronze made possible. He is clearly based on firsthand observation. The support on which the god rests is a modern addition, but the work originally would have had a separate base, most likely of stone.  

This statue is the finest example of its kind. Judging from the large number of extant replicas, the type was popular in Hellenistic and, especially, Roman times. In the Roman period, Sleeping Eros statues decorated villa gardens and fountains. Their function in the Hellenistic period is less clear. They may have been used as dedications within a sanctuary of Aphrodite or possibly may have been erected in a public park or private, even royal, garden.



Gold armband with Herakles knot

The Herakles knot on this sumptuous armband is enriched with floral decoration and inlaid with garnets, emeralds, and enamel. According to the Roman writer Pliny, the decorative device of the Herakles knot could cure wounds, and its popularity in Hellenistic jewelry suggests that it was thought to have the power to avert evil.


Pair of gold armbands

These imposing serpentine armbands represent two tritons, male and female, each holding a small winged Eros. The hoops behind the tritons' heads were used to attach the armbands to the sleeves of a garment, for otherwise, their weight (each over 6 1/2 ounces) would have caused them to slip down the arms.


Glass situla (bucket) with silver handles

Translucent greenish.
Everted, angular rim, with thick vertical outer edge; slightly convex side tapering downwards; slightly domed bottom; two handle attachments, each pierced by two horizontal holes, project outward and upward from the edge of the rim on opposite sides of the bucket; two silver handles, each cut from a flat sheet into a semicircular arched strip, end in U-shaped round rods with decorative finials that are turned upward through the holes in the handle attachments.


The handle attachments are carved into rounded rectilinear blocks with a central upward finial with a raised outer surface, resembling a stylized palmette. On exterior, painted decoration extends from underside of rim to the bottom, comprising four main elements: at top, under rim, a continuous dog-tooth band in purplish red, with a thin line of light (Egyptian) blue below; on body, several irregular horizontal bands of small bud-like objects in shades of pinkish red, with details outlined in dark brown; on bottom, similar small objects, perhaps arranged in a rosette pattern; finally, two vertical stripes run down the sides of the bucket below the handle attachments, both are block-filled with purplish red paint, into which the lines of slender wavy tendrils have been incised freehand. Traces of gilding are visible on the stripes and elsewhere on the sides. The silver handles are fashioned into a stylized bud at the end of each rod. 


Broken and repaired from numerous small fragments, with some losses and areas of fill; a few bubbles and many internal strain cracks; slight pitting and areas of whitish iridescent weathering; the silver handles are also broken and repaired.

The situla was used for cooling and serving wine at banquets. This one is made of almost colorless glass. It was cast and carved, and then bands of gilded and painted decoration were applied around the outside. The vessel is highly unusual in both shape and decoration, and few parallels in glass are known. It may, however, be compared with metal examples such as the bronze situla of the Prusias Find, which is displayed in the gallery for Greek art of the fourth century B.C.



Medallion with relief bust of Athen


Hellenistic, 2nd century B.C. Greek
Medium: Gold, blue enamel
Dimensions: 4 3/8 in. (11.1 cm) 
Classification: Gold and Silver 






Statue of a youth, 
Hellenistic, 2nd century B.C. 
Greek, 
Marble Sculpture


Statue of a female figure in archaistic style


Hellenistic
50–125 B.C.
Greek
Marble


Portrait of Pompey the Great


Period: Late Republican
ca. 50 B.C.
Roman
Marble

Grave Stele of an Enthroned Woman with an Attendant


Hellenistic
ca. 100 B.C.
Greek
Marble

Applique depicting the head of Pan


Hellenistic
100 B.C.
Greek
Medium: Ivory

Gold diadem


Hellenistic
250-150 B.C.
Greek
Medium: gold, garnet, carnelian, sardonyx

Mosaic with street musicians


Period: Late Republican
2nd–1st century B.C.
Roman
Medium: Stone Mosaic

Calyx Krater, so-called "Borghese Vase"


ca. 40-30 B.C.
Roman
Marble Sculpture

Sleeping Hermaphrodite


mid 2nd century A.D.
Roman
Marble Sculpture

Portrait of a Roman General from Tivoli


Late Republican
80–60 B.C.
Roman
Marble Sculpture

Portrait of a man from Delos


Hellenistic
ca. 100 B.C.
Greek
Bronze


Cameo with portrait heads


Hellenistic
278–269 B.C.
Greek, Ptolemaic
Sardonyx (gem stone)

Rhyton with centaur protome


Hellenistic
ca. 160 B.C.
Greek
silver, gold

Upper body of a queen


Hellenistic
175–150 B.C.
Greek
Marble Sculpture

Statue of a triton, akroterion from the Great Altar


Hellenistic
ca. 160 B.C.
Greek
Marble Sculpture

Panel 12 of the Telephos Frieze: 

Herakles Discovers His Son Telephos


Hellenistic
ca. 160 B.C.
Greek
Marble


(Source: Photos by ARTSnFOOD staff and supplied by the Met Museum NYC, Any text came from the Met Museum press dept. and the wall plaques next to each work of art at the exhibition. All photos were taken with permission.)

FOOD:
Is good health,
a result of diet, 
exercise or both?





(Source: NutritionFacts.org)

Until later,
Jack
ARTSnFOOD is an online magazine dedicated to providing artists and collectors around the world with highlights of current art exhibitions, and to encourage all readers to invest in and participate in "The Joy of Art"® and culture. All rights reserved. All Concepts, Original Art, Text & Photographs in this posting (which are not credited) are © Copyright 2016 Jack A. Atkinson under all International intellectual property and copyright laws. All gallery, event, museum, fair or festival photographs were taken with permission. Images © individual artists.


Monday, August 29, 2016

Antiquities: Art & Design During the Time of Alexander the Great + FOOD Fall for Mixed-Drinks

Limestone metope with battle scene.
Greek, Hellenistic period, late 3rd-mid-2nd century b.c.

ART
Antiquities: 
Art & Design
during and after 
Alexander the Great
(From the Met Museum of Art NYC Exhibition: 
Pergamon and the Hellenistic Kingdoms 

of the Ancient World)

The Hellenistic Age that followed the conquests of Alexander the Great witnessed unprecedented cultural exchange and a burst of creative activity. After Alexander's death in 323 B.C., his generals, known as the Diadochi (Successors), divided his vast empire, which stretched from Greece and Asia Minor through Egypt and the Near East to the Indus River Valley, into multiple new kingdoms. Over the next three centuries, the concentration of wealth and power in these kingdoms fostered an unparalleled growth in the arts, while the melding of traditions led to new standards and conventions in style. Hellenistic royalty were major patrons of the arts and sciences, and formed the first great libraries, art collections, and museums. It was primarily through the Hellenistic kingdoms and illustrious city-states such as Athens that ancient Greek art was transmitted to the Romans.

The Acropolis of Pergamon




This above graphic shows a photograph of the ancient Greek Acropolis and citadel of Pergamon: "Today" and with an overlay drawing, then a digital recreation painting of what it was like at  "Pergamon while it flourished." 

(Pergamon Panorama, by Yadegar Asisi for Met Museum NYC)

The only known ancient illustration of the famous altar to Zeus and Athena
that was once considered one of the wonders of the ancient world.
Roman Medal, Severan period, a.d. 193-211

(Above) Bronze medal with image of the Pergamon Altar

This bronze medallion is part of a series of coins that celebrated the city of Pergamon in the Roman period. The reverse side represents the Great Altar with a central vaulted element on a high podium accessible by a wide staircase and flanked by two porticoes. Although miniature in scale, it is the only known ancient illustration of the famous altar to Zeus and Athena that was once considered one of the wonders of the ancient world. 

Alexander astride Bucephalos

Roman, Late Republican or Early Imperial period, 
second half of the 1st century b.c.; 
a copy of the Greek bronze statue c. 320-300 b.c.
(Above) Bronze small statue of Alexander astride Bucephalos
This dynamic sculpture is thought to be a miniature copy of the statue of Alexander in the life-size equestrian group made by Lysippos commemorating the Macedonian horsemen of Alexander’s elite cavalry who fell during battle of the Granikos against the Persians in 334 b.c. The original monument featured twenty-five men on horseback and was set up in the sanctuary of Zeus at Diaon on the slopes of Mount Olympus.

Philetairos of Pergamon

Philetairos of Pergamon
(Roman, late 1st centry B.C. copy of a Greek state of c. 250 B.C.)

Philetairos of Pergamon

(Above) Marble herm of Philetairos of Pergamon
A Roman copy of a full thengy Greek State, thisportrait depicts Philetairos, the founder of Attalid dynasty that governed Pergamon from 282 to 133 B.C. The thick neck and powerful jaw emphasize his role as a military commander, while the intent gaze of his deep-set eyes speaks to the shrewd maneuverings of an unlikely dynast who secured power by retaining an immense treasury on the citadel of Pergamon.

Greek Funerary Vase

Greek Funerary Vase
Terracotta, Late Classical period, 
last quarter of the 4th century b.c. 
Found in the cemetery of Amphipolis.
(Above) Terra-cotta hydra with cover
In Greece, hydra traditionally contained water but often also ashes. The scene depicted here is the Amazonomachy, the mythological battle between the Greeks and the Amazons. The Amazons were warrior women believed to reside far to the northeast of the Greek heartland. Amazonomachies became popular after the Greek defeat of Persia in the Persian Wars (490-479 b.c.) providing a metaphor for the historic confrontation. The vase is extraordinary for its lead cover, dynamic composition, and superbly preserved polychromy and gilding.

Plate with Elephants
Greek, Hellenistic period, 3rd century b.c.
Discovered at the Necropolis of LeMacchie, Capena, chamber tomb #233, in 1917.

(Above) Terracotta plate with elephants
Exotic animals such as elephants were among the novelties that the Greeks encountered in the course of Alexander’s campaigns as far away as India. Here, the adult animal equipped for battle advances with a baby in tow. Recent research has shown that this and several other comparable scenes commemorate the defeat of the Greek general Pyrrhos by the Roman consul Marcus Curius Dentatus — and his elephants — at Beneventum (Italy) in 275 b.c.

The Darius Krater
(detail)

(Above) Terracotta volute-krater
(The Darius Krater) 
Greek - South Italian, Apulian - Late Classical or Early Hellenistic period, c. 330-320 b.c.

Herakles

(Above) Heracles
Greek, Hellenistic Bronze 3rd century b.c. 

Wreath with myrtle leaves.
(Above) 
Wreath with myrtle leaves
Greek, Hellenistic, gold crown, 325-300 b.c., Greek, 7 1/2" diameter.

(Source: Photos by ARTSnFOOD staff and supplied by the Met Museum NYC, Text came from the Met Museum press dept. and the wall plaques next to each work of art at the exhibition. All photos were taken with permission.)

FOOD
FALL for
MIXED-DRINKS

Old-Fashioned
Ingredients:
1 teaspoon granulated sugar
1 teaspoon water
Two dashes angostura bitters
One slice orange rind
2 ounces Canadian Club whiskey
Ice
One maraschino cherry
Preparation: In an old-fashioned glass, muddle the sugar, water, bitters, and orange rind together until the sugar has dissolved. Fill the glass with ice, add the whiskey, and garnish with the cherry. Serve with a cocktail straw.
Bloody Mary
Ingredients:
1-1/2 parts Grey Goose Original
3 parts Bloody Mary mix
1/2 parts lime juice
Preparation: Add all ingredients to a cocktail shaker filled with ice and shake vigorously. Strain into a chilled collins glass filled with ice and present with cocktail onions.
Dry Gin Martini
Ingredients:
2 parts Plymouth Gin
3/4 parts Dry vermouth*
One olive (optional, to garnish)
Lemon zest twist or pickled and green olive
Preparation: Shake ingredients with ice and pour into a very chilled cocktail glass. Garnish with either a lemon twist or an olive.
*Experiment with your quantities of gin and vermouth as desired—more vermouth makes a “wetter” drink; more gin dries it out.
J&B Sour
Ingredients:
50 ml J&B
20 ml lemon juice
20 ml sugar syrup
Half egg white (optional)
Dash Angostura bitters
Preparation: Add all ingredients, apart from the bitters, to a cocktail shaker. Fill with ice and shake hard. Strain into a 10-ounce tumbler filled with fresh ice. Add the dash of bitters and garnish with a lemon wedge.
Vodka Gimlet
Ingredients:
3 parts Stolichnaya 80
2 parts lime juice
1 part simple syrup
Preparation: Shake and pour into an ice-filled rocks glass. Garnish with lime.
Mai Tai
Ingredients:
1 part Bacardi Superior Rum
1 part Bacardi Gold Rum
1/2 part orange curaƧao
4/5 part freshly squeezed lime juice
4/5 part orgeat syrup
Several cubes of ice
Scoop of ice
Tumbler
Hawthorne strainer
Fine Strainer

Preparation: Put all ingredients into a mixing glass, add ice, and mix well. Strain into a glass full of crushed ice. Garnish whit mint sprig and orange wedge.
(Source: Six Mad Men inspired cocktails, divinecaroline.com)

Until later,
Jack
ARTSnFOOD is an online magazine dedicated to providing artists and collectors around the world with highlights of current art exhibitions, and to encourage all readers to invest in and participate in "The Joy of Art"® and culture. All rights reserved. All Concepts, Original Art, Text & Photographs in this posting (which are not credited) are © Copyright 2016 Jack A. Atkinson under all International intellectual property and copyright laws. All gallery, event, museum, fair or festival photographs were taken with permission. Images © individual artists.